In this paper, I analyse the relationship between the actions of Plutarchan heroes and Providence.
Of course, Providence collaborates with them by determining the conduct of minor characters
and antagonists, whose performance modifies the future or favours the historical success of the
main characters. But, in any case, even when Plutarch underlines the freedom and responsibility
of his heroes, the historical evolution of peoples (Athens, Sparta, Macedonia or Rome) appears
as a result of their collaboration with Providence: 1) they assume as a rule of conduct the human
qualities loved by Gods; and 2) these reveal their will by dreams, oracles and prodigies, which
are correctly interpreted by the heroes; but 3) divinity always puts the fate of peoples before
the interest of individuals, even sacrificing virtuous men like Brutus to the progress of the
community. In such cases, the constitutions protected by the gods (like, for example, those of
Athens, Sparta or Rome) coincide with political ideas of the biographer himself, who becomes
in this way a political propagandist.